This study examined outcomes from the King Devick (K-D) in athletes with Learning Disabilities (LD) and attention disorders (ADHD).
A total of 574 professional football players from the Canadian Football League (CFL) completed baseline evaluations with computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT) prior to the 2016 competitive season. Player age, education, history of concussion, LD, and ADHD were analyzed for K-D and Immediate Post Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance. A series of analyses of co-variance (ANCOVA’s) were used to compare participants with a history of LD and ADHD with history of concussion as a co-variate.
Approximately 5% of participants reported a diagnosed history of LD and 13% with ADHD. Performance on the K-D test was not significantly correlated with age, education, or history of concussion but was significantly correlated with history of LD and ADHD. Participants with LD performed approximately 6.9 seconds slower on the K-D test (t = 4.70, p. = 0.0003) and participants with ADHD were approximately 2 seconds slower (t = 2.04, p. = 0.04).
Results indicated that players with a history of diagnosed LD and ADHD performed slower on the K-D test in comparison to athletes with no history of diagnoses. The results of this study underscore the importance of recognizing individualized outcomes when using the K-D.
- Performance on the K-D test was significantly correlated with history of LD and ADHD.
- Participants with a history of LD performed approximately 6.9 seconds slower on the K-D test, a result consistent with findings of slower K-D scores in LD samples.
- Players with a history of ADHD presented with statistically significant slower performance (1.9 seconds slower) when compared to the non-ADHD group.
- There was no significant effect for history of concussion on K-D baseline score.
- The K-D Test was significantly correlated with Visual Motor Processing, Visual Memory, and Reaction Time, however R-squared values were low suggesting little overlap between the cognitive abilities suggesting that the K-D Test adds unique information to the clinical outcomes associated with concussion.