To establish the King-Devick test (KD) performance values for children and adolescents.


Prospective cohort.


Pediatric sports medicine clinics.


Five hundred seven athletes presenting to a pediatric sports medicine clinic for non–concussion-related evaluations.

Independent Variables

Age, sex, and risk factors for abnormal concussion recovery.

Main Outcome Measures

The King-Devick test time.


Four hundred eighty-three participants were included in the final analysis, which included 60.5% girls (n = 292) and 39.5% boys (n = 191). The KD test performance varied by age with a steady decrease in test time yearly from 8 years through 14 years of age, where some plateauing occurred. Baseline scores changed approximately 31 seconds over ages 8 to 18. Analysis of variance results revealed a strong effect of age on overall mean KD time (P < 0.001). The KD test performance was not associated with sex or other studied concussion risk factors or comorbid conditions.


The KD test performance was reported in a cohort of youth aged 8 to 18 years, allowing for comparison of performance in individuals who may not have a baseline assessment. If baseline testing is desired, at least yearly intervals seems to be appropriate through childhood and early adolescence.

Summary Points

  • K-D Test performance improves with age for children ages 8-14 years. It is recommended that up-to-date baseline testing be performed to account for the improvement in scores with age.
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